"Chavez said "US playing whoose god at Haiti" quote from spanish ABC, his said US military has been test their Earthquaqe weapon with code name "HAARP" OR High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program"THIS IS FACT ABOUT HAARP
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is an ionospheric research facility jointly funded by the US Air Force, the US Navy, the University of Alaska, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Its purpose is to analyze the ionosphere and investigate the potential for developing ionospheric enhancement technology for communications and surveillance purposes. Started in 1993, the project is proposed to last for a period of twenty years. The system was designed and built by Advanced Power Technologies (APTI) and since 2003, by BAE Advanced Technologies.
The facility currently operates a VHF and UHF radar, a fluxgate magnetometer, a digisonde, and an induction magnetometer alongside the transmitter facilities. As of 2008, HAARP had incurred around $250 million in tax-funded construction and operating costs.
ObjectivesThe HAARP project aims to direct a 3.6 MW signal, in the 2.8-10 MHz region of the HF band, into the ionosphere. The signal may be pulsed or continuous. Then, effects of the transmission and any recovery period can be examined using associated instrumentation, including VHF and UHF radars, HF receivers, and optical cameras. According to the HAARP team, this will advance the study of basic natural processes that occur in the ionosphere under the natural but much stronger influence of solar interaction, as well as how the natural ionosphere affects radio signals. This will enable scientists to develop techniques to mitigate these effects in order to improve the reliability and/or performance of communication and navigation systems, which would have a wide range of applications in both the civilian and military sectors, such as an increase the accuracy of GPS navigation and advancements in underwater and underground research and applications. This may lead to improved methods for submarine communication and the ability to remotely sense the mineral content of the terrestrial subsurface, among other things. One application would be to map out the underground complexes of countries such as Iran and North Korea. The current facility lacks the range to reach these countries but the research could be used to develop a mobile platform. The HAARP program began in 1990. The project is funded by the Office of Naval Research and jointly managed by the ONR and Air Force Research Laboratory, with the principal involvement of the University of Alaska. Many other universities and educational institutions have been involved in the development of the project and its instruments, namely the University of Alaska (Fairbanks), Stanford University, Penn State University (ARL), Boston College, UCLA, Clemson University, Dartmouth College, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Massachusetts, MIT, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, and the University of Tulsa. The project's specifications were developed by the universities, which are continuing to play a major role in the design of future research efforts.
According to HAARP's management, the project strives for openness and all activities are logged and publicly available. Scientists without security clearances, even foreign nationals, are routinely allowed on site. The HAARP facility regularly (once a year on most years according to the HAARP home page) hosts open houses, during which time any civilian may tour the entire facility. In addition, scientific results obtained with HAARP are routinely published in major research journals (such as Geophysical Research Letters, or Journal of Geophysical Research), written both by university scientists (American and foreign) or by US Department of Defense research lab scientists. Each summer, the HAARP holds a summer-school for visiting students, including foreign nationals, giving them an opportunity to do research with one of the world's foremost research instruments.
ResearchHAARP's main goal is basic science research of the uppermost portion of the atmosphere, known as the ionosphere. Essentially a transition between the atmosphere and the magnetosphere, the ionosphere is where the atmosphere is thin enough that the sun's x-rays and UV rays can reach it, but thick enough that there are still enough molecules present to absorb those rays. Consequently, the ionosphere consists of a rapid increase in density of free electrons, beginning at ~70 km, reaching a peak at ~300 km, and then falling off again as the atmosphere disappears entirely by ~1000 km. Various aspects of HAARP can study all of the main layers of the ionosphere.
The profile of the ionosphere, however, is highly variable, showing minute-to-minute changes, diurnal changes, seasonal changes, and year-to-year changes. This becomes particularly complicated near the Earth's poles, where a host of physical processes (like auroral lights) are unlocked by the fact that the alignment of the Earth's magnetic field is nearly vertical.
On the other hand, the ionosphere is traditionally very difficult to measure. Balloons cannot reach it because the air is too thin, but satellites cannot orbit there because the air is still too thick. Hence, most experiments on the ionosphere give only small pieces of information. HAARP approaches the study of the ionosphere by following in the footsteps of an ionospheric heater called EISCAT near Tromsø, Norway. There, scientists pioneered exploration of the ionosphere by perturbing it with radio waves in the 2-10 MHz range, and studying how the ionosphere reacts. HAARP performs the same functions but with more power, and a more flexible and agile HF beam.
Some of the main scientific findings from HAARP include:
- Generation of very low frequency radio waves by modulated heating of the auroral electrojet, useful because generating VLF waves ordinarily requires gigantic antennas
- Production of weak luminous glow (below what you can see with your eye, but measurable) from absorption of HAARP's signal
- Production of ultra low frequency waves in the 0.1 Hz range, which are next to impossible to produce any other way
- Generation of whistler-mode VLF signals which enter the magnetosphere, and propagate to the other hemisphere, interacting with Van Allen radiation belt particles along the way
- VLF remote sensing of the heated ionosphere
- Ionospheric heating
- Plasma line observations
- Stimulated electron emission observations
- Gyro-frequency heating research
- Spread F observations
- Airglow observations
- Heating induced scintillation observations
- VLF and ELF generation observations (http://www-star.stanford.edu/~vlf/publications/2008-03.pdf)
- Radio observations of meteors
- Polar mesospheric summer echoes: Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) have been studied using the IRI as a powerful radar, as well as with the 28 MHz radar, and the two VHF radars at 49 MHz and 139 MHz. The presence of multiple radars spanning both HF and VHF bands allows scientists to make comparative measurements that may someday lead to an understanding of the processes that form these elusive phenomena.
- Research on extraterrestrial HF radar echos: the Lunar Echo experiment (2008).
- Testing of SS-Spread Spectrum Transmitters 2009
- Meteor shower impacts on the ionosphere
- Response and recovery of the ionosphere from solar flares and geomagnetic storms
- The effect of ionospheric disturbances on GPS satellite signal quality
Instrumentation and operationThe Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI) is the primary instrument at HAARP, which is a high-frequency (HF) transmitter system used to temporarily energize a portion of the ionosphere. Study of this modified volume yields important information for understanding natural ionospheric processes.
During active ionospheric research, the signal generated by the transmitter system is delivered to the antenna array, transmitted in an upward direction, and is partially absorbed, at an altitude between 70 km (43 mi) to 350 km (217 mi) (depending on operating frequency), a few tens of kilometers in diameter over the site. The intensity of the HF signal in the ionosphere is less than 3 µW/cm², tens of thousands of times less than the Sun's natural electromagnetic radiation reaching the earth and hundreds of times less than even the normal random variations in intensity of the Sun's natural ultraviolet (UV) energy which creates the ionosphere. The small effects that are produced, however, can be observed with the sensitive scientific instruments installed at the HAARP facility and these observations can provide new information about the dynamics of plasmas and new insight into the processes of solar-terrestrial interactions.
Each antenna element consists of a crossed dipole that can be polarized for linear, ordinary mode (O-mode), or extraordinary mode (X-mode) transmission and reception. Each part of the two section crossed dipoles are individually fed from a custom built transmitter, that has been specially designed with very low distortion. The ERP of the IRI is limited by more than a factor of 10 at its lower operating frequencies. Much of this is due to higher antenna losses and a less efficient antenna pattern.
HAARP can transmit between 2.7 and 10 MHz. This frequency range lies above the AM radio broadcast band and well below Citizens' Band frequency allocations. The HAARP is licensed to transmit only in certain segments of this frequency range, however. When the IRI is transmitting, the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is 100 kHz or less. The IRI can transmit continuously (CW) or pulses as short as 10 microseconds (µs). CW transmission is generally used for ionospheric modification, while short pulses are frequently repeated, and the IRI is used as a radar system. Researchers can run experiments that use both modes of transmission, modifying the ionosphere for a predetermined amount of time, then measuring the decay of modification effects with pulsed transmissions.
A fluxgate magnetometer built by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute is available to chart variations in the Earth's magnetic field. Rapid and sharp changes may indicate a geomagnetic storm. A digisonde provides ionospheric profiles, allowing scientists to choose appropriate frequencies for IRI operation. The HAARP makes current and historic digisonde information available online. An induction magnetometer, provided by the University of Tokyo, measures the changing geomagnetic field in the Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range of 0–5 Hz.
Alleged potential for use as a weaponThe HAARP project became the subject of controversy in the mid-1990s, following claims that the antennas could be used as a weapon. In August 2002, a critical mention of HAARP technology came from the State Duma (parliament) of Russia. The Duma issued a press release on the HAARP written by the international affairs and defense committees, signed by 90 deputies and presented to then President Vladimir Putin. The statement claimed:
The U.S. is creating new integral geophysical weapons that may influence the near-Earth medium with high-frequency radio waves ... The significance of this qualitative leap could be compared to the transition from cold steel to firearms, or from conventional weapons to nuclear weapons. This new type of weapons differs from previous types in that the near-Earth medium becomes at once an object of direct influence and its component.
Conspiracy theoriesHAARP is the subject of numerous conspiracy theories, with individuals ascribing various hidden motives and capabilities to the project, among them; a powerful death beam, a source of alternative energy, a missile defense system, and a mind control weapon. Journalist Sharon Weinberger called HAARP "the Moby Dick of conspiracy theories" and said the popularity of conspiracy theories often overshadows the benefits HAARP may provide to the scientific community.
Skeptic computer scientist David Naiditch called HAARP "a magnet for conspiracy theorists", saying the project has been blamed for triggering catastrophes such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and devastating earthquakes in Afghanistan and the Philippines aimed to "shake up" Muslim terrorists. Naiditch says HAARP has been blamed for diverse events including major power outages, the downing of TWA flight 800, Gulf War Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, as well as the Columbine High School shootings. HAARP has also been variously described as a missile defense shield, a death ray, a machine that can interfere with the migratory paths of wild animals, a tool of the Antichrist, a worldwide communications jammer, an apparatus that can cause the Earth to spin out of control, and a system linked to UFO activity. Conspiracy theorists have also suggested links between HAARP and the work of Nikola Tesla and physicist Bernard Eastlund. According to Naiditch, HAARP is an attractive target for conspiracy theorists because "its purpose seems deeply mysterious to the scientifically uninformed".
Some conspiracy websites and some Venezuelan and Russian media have reportedly blamed HAARP as a cause of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.